Because of the involvement of toxic and hazardous chemicals, it is important to include safety measures in all stages of chemical tanker loading. If there is any problem during the loading process, whether it be chemical leaks or non-conformance, operations would cease and the problem must be addressed and fixed before work can continue.
1. Loading Execution
Before you start loading chemicals into the chemical tanker, an officer must check all of the systems and equipment and ensure that they are of satisfactory level. After all, chemicals that could potentially be harmful are being loaded, so it is best to doublecheck.
2. High Vapour Pressure Cargo Handling
When you handle cargo with high pressure vapour, you must take heightened precautions because vapour generation at high rates would happen when loading and unloading. Gas evolves rapidly as the vapour pressure in petroleum cargo enters a tank, and this will make hydrocarbon gas highly concentrated.
3. Clearing the Shore Pipelines
After completion, inert gas or air will be used to clear out shore pipelines. The officer in charge must make sure that there is enough space in a tank to hold a certain amount of chemical for the shore pipeline: if not, the tank could overflow.
4. Compressed Gas Usage
In order to press products or chemical out of tanks into a ship, compressed gas is used. But there is a risk of having the tank be over pressurised. Overpressure can occur quickly in a closed tank. It could happen in seconds when the measurement between the manifold and tank is short, or if the tank has limited vapour space. It is best for a crewmember to monitor the manifold to prevent this from happening.
5. Topping Off
The officer in charge must monitor that chemical tanks are topped off and isolated from other tanks that are in the process of loading. Tanks that have been topped off must be monitored often to check on liquid levels to avoid overflow.
6. Cargo Hoses Clearing
When it is time to clear the line after loading the tank, it is a must to lessen the gas that is entering the tank to avoid the cargo from bubbling up. If you are using nitrogen to clear the tank hose, one should be careful as to prevent too much nitrogen from entering the cargo.
7. Blowing Lines
Steam, compressed air, or nitrogen is used to blow through the pipes and doing this will empty it between the terminal and manifold. It is important to blow through the lines to reduce risk when releasing the hose connection.
It is viable that high amounts of cargo are pressed into a tank with pressures at a high rate. Methodology and tank volume are required for emptying shorelines, and this must be discussed before loading.
9. Loading Completion
Once chemical tanker loading is finished, the person in charge must ensure that the manifold valve has been properly closed. If shorelines are emptied by pigging or blowing a product into the tanks, the officer must make sure that those tanks have enough space to hold the quantity of the shoreline. The officer must monitor if there is a pressure surge, and he must ensure that ullaging and sampling would be conducted per local or international regulations. Disconnection of shore hoses must only be done once it is drained from residue and relieved from pressure. And finally, the heating system of the cargo must be tested.